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I an ex member of both 7 and 8 Squadron's of the Rhodesian war spending most of my operational time on Seven Squadron as a K Car gunner. I was credited for shooting down a fixed wing aircraft from a K Car on the 9 August 1979. This blog is from articles for research on a book which I HAVE HANDED THIS MANUSCRIPT OVER TO MIMI CAWOOD WHO WILL BE HANDLING THE PUBLICATION OF THE BOOK OF WHICH THERE WILL BE VERY LIMITED COPIES AVAILABLE Contact her on yebomimi@gmail.com The latest news is that the Editing is now done and we can expect to start sales and deliveries by the end of April 2011

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Sunday, August 10, 2008

RED AFRICA (RHODESIA)


FOR THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED IN COMMUNIST CHINESE AND RUSSIAS SUPPORT FOR TERRORISTS IN AFRICA IN THE 1970s
extracted from Marloth Park
In December, 1974, the Rhodesian Government released leaders of two African Nationalist political parties banned in Rhodesia from their restriction so that they could attend a meeting in Lusaka, Zambia, with the Presidents of Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia and Mocambique, neighbours of Rhodesia, in an attempt to unify Rhodesian black nationalists under one banner. As a result of the meetings the Rhodesian nationalists agreed to submit to the leadership of United Methodist Bishop Abel Muzorewa under the banner of the African National Council. They also agreed to abolish their former political parties - the Zimbabwe African Peoples? Union (ZAPU), and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Front for the Liberation of Zimbabwe (FROLIZI).

In the months that followed this agreement it became obvious that the factions within the African National Council were still at odds with each other and pursuing the ideologies developed during the early sixties. There has been frequent contact with communist countries by members of the banned political parties and Rhodesian blacks have been trained, both in ideology and sabotage. They have received through the OAU, and directly, generous gifts of weapons of communist origin. The purpose of this paper is to show the communist support, both ideological and military, that these factions are receiving.

Links to Communist Countries

The Rhodesian Government has been aware since the early 1960?s of numerous visits to Moscow and Peking by leaders of the nationalist groups. The pattern that emerges here is of close links between ZAPU and the USSR and between ZANU and the PRC.

During this period the external missions of ZAPU were known to be coming under increasing communist influence, especially in London, where the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was actively engaged in organising ?platforms? on ZAPU?s behalf. Advertisements of communist content also appeared in the ?Zimbabwe Review?, a Party propaganda organ published in London.

The following are countries in which it is known that Rhodesian nationalists have undergone para-military and sabotage training under communist direction:

RUSSIA

Groups of Rhodesian African nationalists have been accomodated and trained in houses and flats in the Koxhovoskaya and Chirimuski areas of Moscow. Groups have been small - normally consisting of six men per group - and have been trained by Russian uniformed instructors in the use of explosives, arms, sabotage and guerrilla tactics.

NORTH KOREA

Rhodesian African nationalists have been trained in the use of explosives and arms at a camp some fifteen kilometres from Pyongyeng. The instructors on this course were uniformed North Korean military officers.

CHINA

Groups of Rhodesian African nationalists have been trained in camps near Peking and Nanking. Instruction has been given by Chinese military instructors in revolutionary tactics, arms, explosives, sabotage technique, communications and strategy.

GHANA

Large groups of Rhodesian African nationalists were trained at Half Assini and Abenamadi Camps in Ghana during 1965. Instruction was given in guerrilla warfare, weapon training, explosives and sabotage technique by thirteen Chinese instructors.

To bring the situation into the seventies, the following is extracted from a report by the American Affairs Association, Inc., of New York. The report was written by Professor Walter Darnell Jacobs of the University of Maryland. The relevant extract follows:

"In order to judge the extent of Communist support of ZANU and ZAPU some review of the history of these organizations is appropriate. Both ZANU and ZAPU correspond to the type of organization prescribed in the ideology of the national liberation movement as elaborated from Moscow and Peking. The Moscow approach is older, going back at least to Khrushchev?s famous 1960 and 1961 statements which so disturbed President Kennedy and contributed to the reorganization of the U.S. armed forces to attempt to provide a capability to deal with "insurgencies". The Chinese view has been set out in much of the early writings of Mao Tse-Tung and, later, of Lin Piao and others. Both Moscow and Peking have a generous output of theory concerning the national liberation movement. A measure of the significance which the Soviet leadership places on the movement can be gained from assessing its support of ?liberation? activities in Vietnam and elsewhere. It can also be measured from the statement by Leonid Brezhnev to the 24th Congress of the Communist Party in 1971 that the three main revolutionary forces of our epoch are socialism, the international working-class movement, and the national liberation movement. The further remarks of Brezhnev on 30 January 1973 in the Kremlin Palace are also germane. At that time he said: ?The victory of Vietnam shows that it is impossible to conquer a people who fight for their freedom and independence, leaning on the powerful support of their class brothers and all revolutionary and prgressive forces of the planet...The victory of Vietnam is a graphic proof of the effectiveness of the internationalism of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. We have rendered Vietnamese friends active assistance in their efforts on all fronts - the military, political, and diplomatic.

ZANU and ZAPU have been under some pressure from the OAU and several leading African politicians to merge their efforts. In spite of the split between the USSR and PRC, Moscow and Peking have not appeared averse to such a union. In fact, the first ?military? training undergone by Rhodesian African terrorists was in the People?s Republic of China in early 1963. Since that year, ZAPU (formerly known as the People?s Caretaker Council), has received financial and material aid from the Soviet bloc. The other organization, ZANU, has had some continuing support from the Soviet bloc but, more recently, has become increasingly dependent on the PRC. In response to the pressure for unity, on 1 October 1971 the Front for the Liberation of Zimbabwe (FROLIZI) was formed. The constitution and manifesto of FROLIZI are heavily larded with communist verbiage. FROLIZI is headed by James R.P. Chikerema and its effectiveness as a fusion liberation group is still doubtful. In any case, ZANU and ZAPU continue to operate apparently as separate units. Some observers suggest that FROLIZI really represents a coalition of dissidents from ZAPU and ZANU organized behind Chikerema for his own challenge for leadership of the entire Zimbabwe liberation movement.

Further attempts at unity between the remaining members of ZANU and ZAPU led to the establishment of the Joint Military Command (JMC). This was announced at the 19th session of the OAU Liberation Committee at Benghazi, Libya, in January 1972, and ratified at the 20th session in Kampala, Uganda, in May 1972. While the JMC, which appears to be under the command of Herbert Chitepo of ZANU (Herbert Chitepo was assassinated in Lusaka, Zambia, in March 1975) is responsible for recruiting, training, financing, and overall operational planning. Both terrorist groups (ZANU and ZAPU) maintain their own ideological beliefs, and much of the old enmity (basically tribal in nature) still exists.

The following is a breakdown of confirmed and identified terrorist training courses:


ZAPU
ZANU

USSR 17
Bulgaria 1
Cuba 1 1
North Korea 3
PRC 1 3

Training courses outside the communist bloc include:


ZAPU
ZANU

Algeria
4


Ghana

1

Egypt
2
1

Tanzania
3
10


Under Chinese instructors.

ZAPU

Courses held in the Soviet Union have been of four main types - para-military training, military engineering, radio (usually at Simferopol and Odessa), and intelligence (in Moscow). Para-military training has also been given in Bulgaria, North Korea, and the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Courses in military engineering and radio are self-explanatory. Para-military courses include instruction in weapons training; the manufacture and use of explosives, grenades and bombs; sabotage and demolition techniques for use on ferro-concrete, steel and wooden targets; guerrilla tactics including ambushes against vehicles and personnel, camouflage and spoor- covering; and basic radio communications and map reading.

Intelligence training covers foreign intelligence organizations (including American, British and French), sophisticated codes and cyphers, invisible inks, and hidden microphones. It also covers counter-intelligence such as agent-running, surveillance, mail interception, and similar measures. Also taught are photography, radio communication, and basic firearms training.

In all cases political indoctrination has been a feature of the training and the terrorists have been taught the importance of spreading the communist doctrine among their people. The ?advantage? of socialism over capitalism is persistently stressed.

ZANU

The training of ZANU recruits has been carried out in the PRC at established military bases near Peking and Nanking. While the same para-military subjects are taught there as in the Soviet Union, great emphasis is placed on influencing the minds and attitudes of the terrorists through political indoctrination and the ?ideology? of guerrilla warfare. The Chinese make much of the fact that they ?won their liberation struggle? by the same tactics being taught to the African trainees. That the Africans were influenced by this brainwashing was evidenced in one incident inside Rhodesia where a group of infiltrators went down clutching Mao Tse- Tung?s ?little red book?. To these infiltrators the book of Chairman Mao?s thoughts provided no greater protection than the traditional African witchdoctor?s spell against bullets.

More recently courses inside the PRC have been largely replaced by similar training and exercises in Tanzania under Chinese instructors. Also of late, emphasis in this training has been on defense against attack by aircraft and on mine laying and sabotage.

OTHER COMMUNIST SUPPORT

To support their investment in the training of terrorists, the USSR and the PRC individually supply weapons, ammunition, explosives, uniforms, finance and food to the OAU Liberation Committee in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, for distribution to the African nationalist groups. This Committee, as a result of non-payment of dues by the majority of its eleven African member states is forced to rely more and more on direct aid from communist sources. (The aid is supplemented by grants from the World Council of Churches, from some Swedish government funds, and from private groups in Norway and elsewhere. Some liberation groups have solicited funds inside the United States.)

As well as channeling assistance to the terrorists through the OAU, the Soviet Union and the PRC supply aid directly to their liberation groups, ZAPU and ZANU, respectively. This system of direct aid is also followed by the Democratic Republic of Germany, North Korea, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland.

The German Democratic Republic prints and circulates the ZAPU newsletter, ?The Zimbabwe Review?. Chinese aid has extended to the supply of radio stations to Tanzania and Zambia for the purpose of broadcasting terrorist propaganda against the white-governed countries of Southern Africa.

There is, in short, no lack of evidence of communist support of ZANU and ZAPU. (Most of the material cited here was gained from interviews with captured or defected ZANU and ZAPU members.) Nor is there any lack of official statements of support by Moscow and Peking for the liberation movements. In addition to the Brezhnev speech cited above, numerous other examples could be adduced. For instance, the Soviet ambassador to the Democratic Republic of the Congo stated during a press conference in Brazzaville on 27 December 1972, that the Soviet Union ?is to increase its aid to African national liberation movements against all forms of national oppression, bringing all possible aid to liberation movements and to the strengthening of young sovereign states which fight for real and authentic independence?.

Terrorism inside Rhodesia remains a problem today largely because the terrorists are supported by the Soviet Union and the PRC. The willingness of Moscow and Peking to heighten its level of support could complicate the problem for Salisbury. The late 1972 and early 1973 incursions into the Centenary district of Rhodesia and in areas of the Zambezi river demonstrate that the terrorists are most difficult to control completely. The problem is further complicated by some new factors which surfaced in the course of these recent raids. First among these is the apparent ability of ZANU and ZAPU to agree on areas of operation. ZAPU operated chiefly in the western area of Rhodesia, along the Zambezi and near Victoria Falls. ZANU seemed to confine its activities to the northeastern areas of Rhodesia. In this ZANU area of responsibility the terrorists were infiltrated into Rhodesia from areas in the Tete province of neighbouring Mozambique which were controlled by the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO). As a result of this control ZANU recruits could be held in FRELIMO camps for a period of training under realistic combat conditions. They could be instructed in advanced methods of supply. These were elements of training that had been missing in earlier terrorist activities inside Rhodesia. When ZANU groups did leave the FRELIMO-controlled areas of Tete Province and moved into Rhodesia, they were able to enter the country and remain there undiscovered for several weeks, or until the outbreak of terrorism in December 1972..."

Communist weapons captured by Rhodesian Security Forces

In a paper prepared in December 1974 after a visit to Rhodesia, Dr. Lucius Beebe, Professor of Strategy, the Citadel, Charleston, S.C. wrote as follows:

"Weapons used by the terrorists are all of communist origin; this writer has seen hundreds of Chinese made AK-47?s, many still in cosmoline, as well as hand-grenades, land mines, rocket launchers, booby traps, etc., that have been captured by the Rhodesian authorities. The automatic rifle is the most popular weapon, but the land mine is most widely used because of its ease of placement and indiscriminate destruction which fills the African with terror. Since the end of United States involvement in South East Asia, the terrorists? inventory has increased and the diabolical phosphorus mine has been introduced..."

On March 8, 1975, Christopher Munnion reported to the London Daily Telegraph from Salisbury under a headline "GUERRILLAS PLAN MISSILES WAR IN RHODESIA" as follows:

"An African guerrilla group in Rhodesia has been told to step up terrorist warfare on the North-Eastern border following the arrest of its leader by the Government.

ZANU guerrillas have received the instruction after the renewed detention of the Rev. Ndabaningi Sithole, the group?s leader. Guerrilla leaders would be told to go ahead with a new phase of the war due to have been launched before the ceasefire agreed in Lusaka last November, Salisbury sources said.

This phase, I understand, involves the widespread use of the portable Soviet-made Sam 7 ground-to-air missile, large numbers of which have been supplied to ZANU through Tanzania.

The aim is to attempt the destruction of Rhodesian air superiority maintained by Canberra bombers, Hawker Hunter and Vampire ground-attack aircraft and helicopters.

They are also being instructed to lure Rhodesian aircraft - most of them low- and slow-flying - into missile range in the wild border area.

Communist-made missiles have already been used against security force aircraft. But the new phase is understood to involve more than 100 guerrillas specially-trained in the use of the SAM 7.

On the ground the ceasefire has now been completely forgotten by Rhodesian forces and guerrillas alike. Rhodesians are carrying out full-scale counter-insurgency operations while there are daily reports of terrorism."

A Naval correspondent of the same newspaper on March 3 reported under the headline "SOVIET ARMS ARRIVE IN MOZAMBIQUE" as follows:

"Russia has begun shipping arms to Mozambique as the Soviet fleet in the Indian Ocean expands its activities at a rapid rate.

The Mozambique port of Beira and the Comoro Islands northwest of Malagasy are among new ports of call for the Russian ships.

In Mauritius the almost permanent presence of Russian warships has meant that visits by British and American warships have almost been abandoned.

But while France plans to build a new base in the Comoro Islands, the British naval radio station on Mauritius, along with the RAF staging post at Gan in the Maldive Islands, are to be closed under the Government?s defence cuts.

South African naval leaders are worried by the increasing Russian naval activity.

In the western Indian Ocean the elderly South African Shackleton patrol aircraft are the only Western planes available to keep watch on the Russians.

For the first time South Africa is building her own warships. Six missile boats, probably equipped with the Israeli Gabriel missile which was used with success in the 1973 war, are being built at Durban.

More submarines in addition to the three French-built boats now in service, may be ordered. France is most likely to get this order.

To find the number of sailors needed, coloured sailors now form a major portion of the crew of the naval survey ship, Protea, 2,750 tons. Recruiting for a naval Indian corps has also begun."

Policy Statements by Rhodesian Black Nationalist Leaders

ZAPU:

There have been a number of interviews of representatives of the Zimbabwe African Peoples? Union by an organization called the Liberation Support Movement which is based in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Below are quotes from some of these interviews:

Interview with Edward Ndhlovu, ZAPU Deputy National Secretary, Dec. 1974

"At the moment we depend heavily on outside supplies of arms and funds to carry out our operations. In the long run, however, such a situation tends to hamper the progress of our struggle. Just the enormous time between requesting certain equipment and actually getting it into areas of operation makes planning very difficult. Our revolution demands patience but having to wait a long time for supplies can become a cause of demoralization among our fighters. It is therefore of great importance that we achieve greater self-reliance as soon as possible. Logistic problems also limit recruitment and training inside Zimbabwe (nationalist name for Rhodesia). Some of our fighters are trained inside, but there is a very definite limit as to how much of this we can do. We give recruits basic knowledge of explosives and training in the use of light weapons. However, we don?t have adequate arms and ammunition for most of those who want to join us inside. Most of our guerrillas, therefore, are still trained outside in socialist or independent African countries. In the future, when we can improve our logistic situation, this should change.

I should add that all our militants also receive political training. They study Marxism, Leninism, Maoism, the history of Zimbabwe and writings on either revolutions, such as in Vietnam, Algeria, Cuba, or the Mau-Mau in Kenya. Whenever we can, we spend time on political education, since it is crucial in building and maintaining the morale and good comportment among our guerrillas.

As for ZAPU, it is no secret that we base our work on the principles of Marxism-Leninism and that our ideological position is rooted in the masses. The struggle to create a new society such as we are striving for must be based on the principles of scientific socialism.

We are committed to a programme of establishing a socialist state and society in Zimbabwe, and this we will do. We will need the support of everyone who has something to contribute, irrespective of race, colour or creed. In the short term there will be land reform and the establishment of peoples? control over all large companies, including the multinationals operating in our country. Later we will go further,... but it is difficult to be more specific at this stage. Nevertheless, I am convinced that a free and socialist Zimbabwe will be a better place to live in for all Zimbabweans."

Interview with George Nyandoro, General Secretary of ZAPU

"During the liberation struggle our main objective is to seize power - then we can begin the social revolution, begin to put our social principles into practice. When we liberate an area, then we will begin our social revolution from that base - in practical terms. Until that time, until we have power in a liberated area, considerations of socialist programmes and policies are necessarily confined to the realm of pure theory."

Interview with George Silundika, ZAPU Publicity and Information Secretary

"We are confident that the masses will not allow any leaders, whether of the ANC or any other organization, to commit the nation to a non-revolutionary course. Our guarantee is the persistence of the masses in their demand for genuine freedom, which they have already sacrificed so much for. The ANC struck a correct note with an already organized people and the people reacted in a disciplined manner. So while the ANC leadership is inexperienced, the masses have a long history of struggle and will ensure a correct direction to further developments. Bishop Muzorewa?s (President of the ANC) recent public surrender of the principle of ?one man one vote? and his unprincipled flirtation with Ian Smith represent a radical and dangerous deviation from the correct line of the masses."

ZANU

The following quotations are from documents and evidence presented to the Special Court established in terms of Section 3 of the Emergency Powers (Special Court) Regulations, 1975, and presided over by the Honourable Hector Macdonald, Acting Chief Justice of Rhodesia. The Special Court was established to consider the redetention of the Rev. Ndabaningi Sithole, leader of the Zimbabwe African National Union, which is a banned organization in Rhodesia but which is now operating under the umbrella of the African National Council. The following extracts are presented. The official political programme of ZANU has this to say about the establishment of a new state in Rhodesia:

"A truly socialist, self-supporting economy would be established and organized on broad principles enunciated by Marxism-Leninism."

In a publication "Basic Information about ZANU", the question is posed, what is ZANU?s ideology? The answer is given as follows:

"ZANU is guided by the principles of Marxism-Leninism. It aims at achieving a socialist revolution. However, before the achievement of such a socialist revolution, a transitional stage of national democratic revolution is necessary. The national democratic revolution is a necessary preparation for the socialist revolution, and the socialist revolution is the inevitable sequel to the national democratic revolution. The deeper the national democratic revolution, the better the conditions for socialist revolution."

In the official monthly publication for the month of December, 1974, the following claims are made:

"The same period in question saw great achievements and advances in the field of political mobilization at home and abroad. Combining theory and practice and utilizing Marxist- Leninist organization tactics, ZANU cadres throughout the country made great inroads in the mobilization of the suffering people. Workers, peasants, intellectuals and students have all come in full force to support the struggle under the banner of ZANU. ZANU secret branches have been set up throughout the country. Party cadres have organized themselves into clandestine ZANU cells in the countryside, urban residential areas, factories, colleges, etc., in order to carry out political underground work and mobilization of the people."

In the opening paragraph of its political programme, ZANU states that at the time of its formation "it was dedicated to the policy of national independence and national liberation through violent revolution. It sought to unite all African people behind a leadership committed to this policy... For the last seven years, ZANU has been committed to a policy of violent revolution in order to change totally and completely the existing social and political system." In the same document, under the heading "The Task at Present", it is said that -

"The most pressing task of the Party, freedom-fighters and the people at present is to intensify the armed struggle in Zimbabwe in order to free our motherland within this decade...ZANU is committed to achieving national independence through the armed struggle. It disapproves of the policy of collaboration with the white racist states in Southern Africa advocated by the Republic of Malawi. While ZANU appreciates the motives and reasons behind the signatories to the Lusaka Manifesto, it completely rejects its approach to the problem and reaffirms its belief in the armed struggle."

In the December, 1974 edition of the Zimbabwe News, the following emerges:

"ZANU says that there is no ceasefire and there won?t be a ceasefire until there is a definite programme to transfer power to the African people of Zimbabwe. And the only man who can call for a ceasefire is Comrade Ndabaningi Sithole, the President of ZANU."







TERRORIST INCURSIONS FROM ZAMBIA
A Statement by the Prime Minister, THE HON. I.D. SMITH, and other proceedings of the Rhodesian Parliament





30th August, 1967

With the leave of the House, I wish to make a statement. I lay on the Table of the House a copy of the Note [see appendix] of 28th August, 1967, which the Rhodesia Government handed to the British Government yesterday in London drawing to the attention of the British Government the recent spate of terrorist incursions into Rhodesia, pointing out to them the encouragement and assistance given to these terrorists by the Zambian Government and, more important, emphasizing the fact that the British Government cannot escape its share of responsibility for these developments.
The British Government has rejected this Note. The head of the Rhodesian Residual Mission in London was informed that the Commonwealth Office had examined the document and had declared that it could not be accepted because Her Majesty's Government do not recognize the Rhodesian Government and cannot therefore accept any diplomatic Note emanating from them in that capacity.
I think this action by the British Government clearly expresses their disregard for the well-being of Rhodesia, in spite of their protests that they are opposed to violence and disorder. This attitude is in strange contrast to the military and police support which Rhodesia and Rhodesian forces have willingly given to the Commonwealth in the past.
I will not deal with the period of the last great war-the part played by Rhodesia throughout this epic struggle is too well known to warrant repetition.
Confining myself to the post-war era, let me remind Britain that in 1951 Rhodesia provided two fighter squadrons as a contribution to Commonwealth defence. For a further post-war period Rhodesia became the home of a Royal Air Force training group and the Rhodesian Government contributed towards its upkeep. From 1958 to 1963, on nine different occasions, Rhodesian Vampire and Canberra squadrons were detached to Aden and Cyprus respectively and while there were under British command. In 1961 Rhodesian transport aircraft provided notable assistance to the Royal Air Force during the Kuwait crisis when Royal Rhodesian Air Force Canadairs transported British troops in the Middle East. Later in the same year Rhodesian Dakotas transported and dropped food to flood-stricken tribesmen in Somalia at the request of the British Government.
As for the Rhodesian Army: in late 1950 a squadron of 100 European volunteers with regular officers and non-commissioned officers was raised as part of the Rhodesian contribution to Commonwealth defence and went to Malaya to fight communist terrorists - the very type of trained men who are attempting to infiltrate Rhodesia today. The squadron served in Malaya from April, 1951, to March, 1953, where it operated as a separate entity - "C" Squadron of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment. In July, 1962, the present "C" Squadron of the Special Air Service went to Aden for training and operated against terrorists and, again, as part of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment. Today this same unit is in our front lines operating against the infiltrating communist terrorists.
In 1952 the First Battalion of the Rhodesian African Rifles served in the Suez Canal zone in the Middle East. This was followed by a tour of duty in Malaya from April, 1956, to February, 1958, fighting communist terrorists.
The British South Africa Police have given extensive postwar assistance to the British Government in Bechuanaland, Nyasaland, Kenya and Northern Rhodesia as they were then known, four different contingents varying from one officer and 75 members to two officers and 118 men were made available to Bechuanaland in 1950, 1951 and 1952. A large contingent of officers and members was sent to Nyasaland in 1953. Two officers and 52 men were lent to Northern Rhodesia in September/October, 1956. Northern Rhodesia, as it was then, Zambia as it is known today, I remind hon. members, is the country which is aiding and abetting the present terrorist incursion into Rhodesia. Finally, three officers and 250 members were sent to the assistance of British authorities in Nyasaland from February to March, 1959.
In January, 1965, I personally made representations to the British Prime Minister about the training of saboteurs and the harbouring of terrorists in Zambia and Tanzania. The British Prime Minister was unable to give me an entirely satisfactory reply. He took the opportunity of talking about the matter with the Zambian President and accepted the latter's denial that they were allowing Zambia to become a springboard for activities against Rhodesia. President Kaunda said that although his Government could not refuse entry to other Africans, they were exercising careful control over those claiming to be refugees and that they had put restrictions on the activities of political groups. In the light of present day events the value of such assurances can be seen for what they are-a hollow and deceitful mockery of the truth.
In June, 1965, I followed this up by sending Mr. Wilson a full account of the activities and training of Rhodesian subversive elements in Tanzania and Ghana and again the reply we received was unsatisfactory; Mr. Wilson saying that he would study carefully the information which the Rhodesian authorities had made available to him through his intelligence channels.
However, this latest case, which I have drawn to your attention today, is the most blatant example of Britain assisting and indeed encouraging the actions of terrorists against friendly countries. I do not wish to exaggerate the present encounter for there is no doubt that our security forces are managing to deal with the terrorist invaders in a most adequate manner, but it is a fact that there has been a resurgence of terrorist activity recently, and most of these people have been effectively indoctrinated with Chinese communism and are dedicated to committing the most atrocious acts of terrorism. Moreover, I think it should be placed on record that the great majority of this gang are members of the South African African National Congress, hoping to pass through Rhodesia in order to practise their deadly trade south of the Limpopo. All Governments, including the British Government, must be aware of a Joint press release issued in Lusaka on the 19th of this month signed by the Deputy Presidents of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, a Rhodesian organization, and the South African African National Congress, a South African organization, in which they declared that:
the fighting presently going on in the Wankie area is indeed being carried out by a combined force of the Zimbabwe African People's Union and the South African African National Congress which is marching on a common route, each bound to its destination, fighting the common settlers enemy to the finish.
On previous occasions when I have taken up the case of the British Government condoning and even supporting the infiltration of terrorists from Zambia, Mr. Wilson did at least reply, although evading the issue. But in this particular case his answer is that he cannot even consider my representations because they come from an illegal Government. Putting it in a nutshell, Mr. Wilson is prepared to deal with me and indeed meet me and talk to me, when it suits him personally and when he hopes to extricate himself from the hook of sanctions on which he is so firmly entangled, but when the lives of poor, decent, innocent people are involved, both black and white, Mr. Wilson has the nerve to say that he cannot accept my communication, because it comes from an illegal Government. This must take the "Oscar" for the greatest piece of hypocrisy of all time. I repeat, that when he thought I might be able to assist him to extricate his head from the sanctions noose, he was prepared, not only to receive a communication from me, but to dine and wine me on board one of his battleships.
This story will surely fill a memorable, but nevertheless shameful page in the history of the present British Labour Party Government and if by chance some unfortunate mishap should befall any innocent Rhodesian, or, for that matter, any inhabitant of Africa south of the Zambezi, then we all know upon whose shoulders a large portion of this blame will fall.
SPEECHES BY MEMBERS OF THE OPPOSITION AND OTHER MEMBERS AFTER ADJOURNMENT.
MR. BEHANE: I wish to comment on certain activities taking place in my part of the country. I am making this comment due to the fact that the Prime Minister made a statement to this House this afternoon concerning the same matters.
I must say that sitting in this House, I represent the people of Matabeleland North, which is the area within which western Matabeleland falls. I cannot but say that I have the interests of those people at heart, and I would be failing in my duty as a member of Parliament representing that area if I did not comment on the matters that are taking place in that part of the country.
It is very well known to this House, and indeed to the country at large, that I have always stood firmly against terrorism and that I always do. I believe that what is being done by our Forces in that part of the country is worth all the praise that this House can give. Apart from the security of the whole country these dedicated men are fighting to preserve peace among the people living in western Matabeleland, people who do not take any interest in what is happening; in fact they do not know what communism is and they do not even know what these infiltrators are trying to bring about. So, for the security of the country and in particular for the security of the people in that part of the country where these minor skirmishes are taking place at this moment, I believe our Forces are worthy of the praise that can emanate from this House. Not only so; reading in the papers we find that several members of our Forces and of the Police Force have lost their lives. They have done that in the belief that Rhodesia is a country whose standards are worthy of being preserved, a country where I still believe there is a chance for all the races to come together and settle their differences.
I will never accept any foreign doctrines as a substitute for our doctrines here. I will never believe that Russian communism or communist Chinese are the people who have the solutions for our problems in this country. If I did believe in that I would just as well believe that there is peace in the Congo today and that these forces have been able to resolve or bring about peace in the countries that have been destroyed to their lowest stage of economy where people have no peace. - [MR. MAJONGWE: And thousands of lives lost.] - I have sometimes said that these terrorists outside the country have done nothing to bring about peace, or indeed to improve the lot of the African in this country.
All they have done is they have brought despondency. If they were really interested in the welfare of this country I challenge the hon. gentleman who signed this document as attached to come down to Rhodesia themselves and do the fighting themselves. If they do not want to expose their skills to the bullets of our Forces then they at least should come down and solve issues in Rhodesia because our issues, I believe, will have to be solved in Rhodesia or never at all.
I have said the welfare of these people in western Matabeleland is in danger and it is our Forces who are gallantly trying to preserve peace in that part of the country. I may, in short, try and bring before this House the aims of these infiltrators. First of all, I would like to know where they have had the training, where they have had the arms and the ammunition - from people who would like to see this country destroyed. It is from people who would like to impose a worse type of government in this country, a worse type of persecution of the lower races by their members because they have not got enough room in their own countries and they would like to find room in Rhodesia. - [MR. CHIGOGO: In Africa as a whole.] - I say again praise to our Forces who are trying to preserve law and order, who are fighting, who are losing their lives and who are facing difficulties to try and maintain law and order in this country . . .
I speak as a family man; I have love for my family; I believe it is the same with every one of us here and apart from anything else I would love to see my children grow up happily and because I am involved in politics is no reason why my family should suffer from injustices. I believe indeed that if it is a sin that I am a politician then those sins must grossly come upon me and never upon my children because I made my choice and I will let my children grow up and make their choices. I believe it is the duty of everyone, every citizen of Rhodesia at this time when we are faced with foreign doctrines, to stand together, to forget politics and to strive never to bring politics into matters of national importance. I believe it is the duty of every citizen in this country to fight to preserve peace. It is the duty of every citizen to take up arms and defend this country from foreign infiltrators, indeed to defend this country from communism. I believe that our Forces at this moment need both moral and physical support, and this is one institution where such feelings should be voiced.
In conclusion, I would like to confirm and redirect the words of the reverend gentleman, the Dean of Bulawayo, who said that terrorism is lawless and must be condemned by all sections of this country, by all spheres, because it knows no law. We know that when these people have had the chance of infiltrating into this country they have killed at random people they had nothing against. They have killed for the sake of killing, for the sake of demonstrating that they can kill, and they have robbed not people like myself who can defend themselves but they have robbed elderly poor people, say, in the Mrewa District, elderly poor people who cannot defend themselves, and they have forced them to give them money. Why should such actions be condoned? Why should that be mistaken for politics? I believe that is not politics, it is only because a few people who are keeping themselves very safe in another country are satisfied to send their own brothers to come and die here in order that they may enjoy the fruits of life wherever they are. - [MR. MAJONGWE: They will not enjoy them for long.]
MR. RUBATIKA: It is a privilege for me to have the opportunity to comment on this motion on the adjournment. In fact I am bewildered at times when I see men holding responsible positions paying lip service to the principle of the maintenance of law and order in this country. When it is to their convenience they uphold law and order but when it is not to their convenience they do not uphold law and order. I have seen men some time ago who have gone almost weeping to the Minister of Law and Order asking for protection, but to-day those are the people who are giving the Minister of Law and Order a hard time because he has brought tranquillity to this country. They have one foot among the terrorists and another foot among the decent people for fear that should the terrorists win they will be accepted as having championed their cause.
Today there are some who are being intimidated because of these people. I am surprised that some of these people are still moving around and yet some of them are being paid by Government in certain institutions of Government. Wherever we move we are told that we are the people who support - I am sorry to use unparliamentary language - "I support Smith and Lardner-Burke". We have plainly told them that as far as we are concerned we might have differences, as members of a family, but we are one in the maintenance of law and order, we are one as a nation of Rhodesia.
I must register my strongest protest to Britain for lack of foresight. Let us say that these terrorists were given the MIGS to land in Zambia and the communists bombed our territory, what does Britain think would happen? The Rhodesian Air Force would start bombing the bases from which those MIGS came. Would this not escalate? We expect Britain, since it says it has responsibility over us up to date, to act as the Prime Minister stated, by exercising his influence on Zambia to stop terrorism and at least to register a protest on behalf of the African people whom it is stating it is championing. We do not want any loss of blood.
As far as my electoral district is concerned and all the electoral districts, all of us hate the chaos and disorder which happened some time ago. We stand in admiration of Government's stand on bringing about law and order. If by any eventuality the white man should fall we must pay the price and I am prepared to tell them to shoot me because I am dedicated to a cause and I shall live and die by it.
MR. CHIGOGO: I must heartily thank the hon. member for Matabeleland North (Mr. Behane) whose electoral district adjoins mine and, as he has said, these troubles are really taking place in his electoral district and equally the same in the Gokwe area. All I have to say here is not much, because a multitude of words is not going to help us at all. I will ask the Prime Minister to ask the Prime Minister of Great Britain whether this is a trick by which Britain would like to arm itself against Rhodesia to say people are fighting and there is chaos. If not, could the Prime Minister of Great Britain tell us where these people are being trained, whether he has any alliances with those training camps where the Rhodesian people are being trained to come and disturb the lives of the innocent Tribal Trust Land people and the innocent farmers who are feeding the 4,000,000 Africans and the 200,000 Europeans in this country?
These are the only questions I would like the Prime Minister to convey to the Prime Minister of Great Britain. Let us know if he is doing any good to those crying for freedom as such, whether the situation that he has been experiencing not only in the Congo, but in Nigeria, Tanzania and Ghana. One needs to mention all of these. Is that what Britain would like to see? May I know again through our Prime Minister whether Great Britain is going to honour Ghana and Nigeria to sit on the Prime Minister's Conference? Those people not only took their freedom but killed their own Prime Ministers; for what reason? I would like to know these answers if the Prime Minister would convey them.
MR. NEWINGTON: As a back-bencher, may I say how grateful we are on this side of the House to see honest courageous and determined men opposite, men who have the same purpose at heart as we do on this side of the House, and that is the safety and security of Rhodesia. I would like to give them my wholehearted congratulations and my appreciation for their courage. I feel though, at the same time, the finger should be placed firmly and fairly on the guilty and evil men.
THE PRIME MINISTER: Mr. Speaker, I would like to compliment the hon. member for Matabeleland North (Mr. Behane) on bringing this matter up and the other members who have joined in this small debate on the adjournment. It is indeed very refreshing to find that in times of national emergency when we are challenged as a country, that we can have people on both sides of the House taking the stand that we have, over the last 20 minutes, witnessed.
I believe that this attitude that has been portrayed here this evening is the attitude which goes throughout the length and breadth of this country. This is, in the main, the feeling of the broad mass of Rhodesians. There are exceptions of course, as there are exceptions in this House, Mr. Speaker, and this was quite evident earlier this afternoon but I am pleased to say that this is confined to a few people. I believe the majority concur with the views that have been expressed here.
How right it was to point out, Sir, what good have these people done to anybody in Rhodesia when they have come here killing people indiscriminately, black and white. Who can they claim to be assisting? The hon. member for Matabeleland North (Mr. Behane) put his finger very firmly on the spot when he said these are agents of communism, and I believe particularly the yellow communist, and that they would love to have this country for themselves. If they did ever get to this stage, then, Mr. Speaker, God help all Rhodesians, not one section or another section. I go along all the way with him and the other hon. members who supported him when they said that whatever problems we have in Rhodesia can only be solved by Rhodesians. This should be a golden rule.
I have no idea what Mr. Wilson is after. I am sorry, I cannot make a constructive reply to the question put to me by the hon. member for Gokwe (Mr. Chigogo).
I have tried to get him to face up to his responsibilities on a number of occasions and he has failed to do so. I do not think any useful purpose will be served by going on flogging a dead horse. Let us make up our minds that we here have got to produce the right solution for Rhodesia. Let us enjoy the system of democracy whereby we can argue and criticize one another; this is healthy. Opposition is part and parcel of our Government and we must have it. But when it comes to infiltration of people from outside, bringing in outside views and outside doctrines, this will only be to the detriment of everybody in Rhodesia because Rhodesia will be divided and people from outside, Mr. Speaker, I believe will ultimately come in and win the day and reap the benefits. There is room for all of us in Rhodesia, in this wonderful country which is the envy of so many other parts of the world. They are green with envy and this is why I believe so many of them are waging the war against us; they would love to have what we have.
So, as long as we can keep together and as long as we can have the sort of constructive debates which we have seen in this short adjournment, then I believe they will never succeed. I once again would like to compliment the responsible hon. members of the Opposition benches for their contribution. - [HON. MEMBERS: Hear, hear.]

APPENDIX
NOTE TO THE UNITED KINGDOM GOVERNMENT FROM THE RHODESIAN GOVERNMENT
28th August, 1967.
The Rhodesia Government wishes to draw urgently to the attention of the British Government the following situation in Rhodesia.
2. Leaders of the two banned Rhodesian African Nationalist Organizations, the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) are now firmly established in Zambia and it is from Lusaka that these people plan subversive operations directed against the Government of Rhodesia, including the infiltration of armed terrorists and offensive materials into this country.
3. At one time the President of Zambia, through his security forces, tried to control the movement of terrorists and offensive materials through his country. From about the middle of 1966, however, when Rhodesian terrorist activities commenced to increase, all vestige of control appears to have vanished and the Zambian Government has since progressed from a policy of ignoring or condoning such activities to one of offering direct encouragement.
4. Rhodesian terrorists receive training in a number of communist countries, including Russia, Red China, Cuba and Algeria, and also at three or more camps in Tanzania. Irrespective of their place of training, terrorists invariably move from Tanzania to Zambia where they are billetted in specially constructed holding camps, established in the vicinity of Lusaka and within easy striking distance of Rhodesia.
5. In Zambia there are also a number of centres used by subversive organizations for the storage of arms, ammunition and other offensive materials used in the equipping of terrorist groups. At their respective holding camps ZAPU and ZANU Party officials indoctrinate the terrorists in Communist and Party Ideology, particularly in the context of the part they are to play in creating a sense of fear and uncertainty in Rhodesia.
6. Groups for terrorist incursions into Rhodesia are issued with arms and equipment and conveyed, quite openly, in ZAPU or ZANU vehicles along one or other of the Zambian road complexes to the Rhodesian border, where they are finally instructed on methods of infiltration and briefed on their targets in Rhodesia. During the hours of darkness they are expected to infiltrate across the Zambezi River into this country.
7. Not only does the Zambian Government condone the activities of Rhodesian terrorists in that country, but it is known that on occasions Zambian Government officials actually assist these people in passing through the border between Zambia and Tanzania.
8. The main supplier of arms and other offensive materials used by Rhodesian terrorists is the African Liberation Committee (A.L.C.) of the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) in Dar es Salaam. Here the material is received from a number of Communist countries and is stored by the Tanzanian Government, which is responsible for the control and subsequent issue of this material to various Nationalist movements.
9. Although there is no proof of direct co-operation between the Governments of Tanzania and Zambia in respect of the movement of offensive material, it is known that the former Government has already suggested to the latter that it adopts some method of control. It is extremely unlikely that the Zambian Government is ignorant of the movement and storage of terrorist arms in Zambia.
10. Since terrorist activity against Rhodesia was intensified about the middle of last year, an ever-increasing number of armed men, of both the ZAPU and ZANU factions, have been infiltrated into this country from Zambia. Initially, only small groups of terrorists entered across the Zambezi River from Zambia. In recent months larger bands-comprising up to thirty or more terrorists-have crossed into Rhodesia. Little credence can therefore be given to any denial by the Zambian Government that it is unaware of the movement of such large numbers of men and quantities of material.
11. The current security operation being waged against the large band of mixed South African African National Congress (SAANC) and ZAPU terrorists in Western Matabeleland shows without any doubt that the Zambian authorities are not only prepared to condone terrorist activities directed against Rhodesia, but are also willing to allow their country to be used as a rallying point for terrorists bent on a campaign of violence against South Africa.
12. The recent threat issued by the Organization of African Unity to Rhodesian nationalists that they can expect no further financial support unless they can produce proof of militant action against Rhodesia has had a two-fold effect. It has influenced both ZAPU and ZANU to intensify the infiltration of terrorists from Zambia across the Zambezi River, and has stimulated ZAPU to abduct over two hundred Rhodesian Africans, in legitimate employment in Zambia, for terrorist training in Tanzania. Thus the Zambian Government has become further implicated by permitting these activities with little or no intervention.
13. On the 19th August in Lusaka, James Robert Chikerema, Vice President of ZAPU, and Oliver Tambo, Deputy President of the SAANC, issued a joint Press release extolling the activities of their combined terrorist groups presently operating in Western Matabeleland.
14. The aim of these terrorist bands is to carry out indiscriminate killing, burning and looting in rural and urban areas. The Rhodesian Government will adopt the most vigorous measures to protect the people and their property and to seek out and destroy these terrorist bands and individual gunmen.
15. The British Government cannot escape its share of responsibility for these developments. There has been a complete absence of any protest by the British Government to the Zambian Government about the passage of arms and offensive material, the reception and harbouring of communist trained terrorists and the use of Zambia as a base for offensive operations against Rhodesia.
16. Here is a case where a Government of one Commonwealth country is lending itself to a policy of violence against another Commonwealth country which has committed no aggression and desires to be friendly and co-operative. The Rhodesian Government considers that Britain continues to have obligations in Zambia to influence that Government towards a policy of moderation and the discouragement of violence against Rhodesia. The Rhodesia Government accordingly lodges a strong protest against the British Government's lack of action in this respect and against its connivance of the hostile attitude of the Zambian Government towards peace and good government in Rhodesia.


THE MURDER OF MISSIONARIES IN RHODESIA
The earliest permanent white residents of Rhodesia were missionaries, and it is significant that their lives were respected by the most warlike of the country's tribes. In an era of generally unbridled savagery, the innate chivalry of primitive warriors and the strict discipline imposed by their leaders seem to have been all that ensured the survival of the devoted little bands of men and women.

Certainly it would be false to suppose that Christian conversion of the indigenous peoples contributed to the security of historical missionary outposts. Where the greatest danger may have seemed to lie among the regimented Matabele conversions were pitifully small.

The conclusion that discipline and rudimentary soldiering qualities did much to preserve the lives of early missionaries seems inescapable.

In the mid l970's intensification of the terrorist war in Rhodesia led to the increasing vulnerability of missions and their occupants. From religious convictions many staff members continued to go unarmed, and their quarters, clinics, hospitals and schools remained unprotected at their request.

In contrast, other civilians trying to pursue their normal activities in similar areas turned to the offensive or formidably defensive.

By 1976, numbers of missionaries, often acting against offlcial advice, had become dangerously vulnerable. Although it had taken time for the undisciplined terrorist bands to appreciate this exposure of soft targets, it was inevitable that mission establishments and their members would prove irresistible prey for well-armed cowards.

There appears to have been no logic behind the attacks which followed apart from that of the terrorists' overweening concern for their own safety. Often incapable of the resolve to assault defended buildings or even armed individuals, attention was turned to the undefended and the unarmed. It is doubtful if the basic political indoctrination to which the communist terrorists had been subjected could be held responsible for many of the attacks, despite the anti religious content of that teaching.

Before any missionaries were killed in Rhodesia there were isolated instances of individual terrorist leaders demonstrating anti- religious views. A piece of rhetoric, left at the scene of an unsuccessful bridge demolition near a mission, closed with the words "Down with Christ."

Subsequent to the first killings, in May 1977, a terrorist leader told missionaries: "If the Jews had not killed Christ, I would have done it myself."

Other missionaries were told by terrorists not to mention Christ and His resurrection in the course of preaching. It has been pointed out that this restriction is ominously akin to similar impositions made upon the Russian churches. In another incident, the Roman Catholic Church was described as representing the evils of capitalism.

In other instances, raids upon missions may have been provoked by those particular establishments failing to give what the terrorists considered adequate assistance.

It is well known that some missions have helped terrorists, the motive sometimes being, presumably, a belief in the moral right of terrorists - more often a belief that assistance will result in the mission being left undisturbed and the staff permitted to continue their work after a black government comes to power.

In the main however, the professionally meek and gentle were seen by the terrorists to be unprotected. Therefore, they were safe to murder, rape and expose to brutality of the most vicious kind imaginable.

The deliberate selection of white missionaries may sometimes have had its origins in a wishful attempt to intimidate other whites. But the availability of defenceless victims in remote areas was clearly the most attractive facet.

Missionaries have been murdered not so much for their faith - but because they were easy to murder. Their deaths are a tragic commentary on the arrant cowardice of "freedom fighters" and the inept leadership of those utterly undisciplined terrorists.

FATHER JEORGER

Father George Jeorger (42) from Switzerland, belonged to the Roman Catholic Order of Bethlehem, and worked at Bondolfi Mission in the Fort Victoria area.

On November 25, 1976, he left his mission and drove to Mashati Township in the Mshawasha Purchase Area. Here - worried about the risk from landmines laid by terrorists - he set off on a bicycle to visit villages and smaller missions in the region.

He was due to have preached at a local church on December 5, but did not appear. The authorities were told and investigations disclosed rumours that he had been murdered by terrorists.

No trace has been found of Father Jeorger, whose name was incorrectly spelled "Oreger" in early reports.

On December 22, 1976, a young terrorist was captured by security forces in the Nyajena Tribal Trust Land, which adjoins the purchase area in which Father Jeorger had vanished.

During his trial in September, 1977, the terrorist claimed he had overheard a terrorist leader named Taurai say the priest had been murdered.

Documents recovered at the scene of the young terrorist's surrender indicated that Father Jeorger had been abducted by a terrorist gang and tried by a kangaroo court.

Despite the fact that the priest was well liked in the area, the documents listed various unsubstantiated "crimes" he was supposed to have committed. These were headed in the documents as "Accounts".

A terse note at the end of the "Accounts" stated: "All these accounts and many others make him liable for a death penalty."

There are certain parallels between the case of Father Jeorger and Father Desmond Paul Donavan, a 50-year-old Jesuit who was abducted near Salisbury on January 15, 1978. While the motor cycle he was riding was later found buried, no further trace of Father Desmond has been discovered.

BISHOP SCHMITT AND HIS COMPANIONS
On December 5, 1976, a terrorist ambushed and killed the 71-year-old forrner Roman Catholic Bishop of Bulawayo, the Rt. Rev. Adolf Schmitt. Also killed in the same incident was a priest, Father Possenti Weggarten, and a nun, Sister Maria Francis van den Berg. The murders took place on a lonely dirt road near Lupane.

First reports of the incident were summed up in a national newspaper next day:

The only survivor of the ambush was Sister Ermenfried Knauer, who was brought fo Bulawayo last night and is recovering at the Mater Dei Hospital.

She was shot in the left leg as she sought shelter under the bishop's car.

There was a stunned silence among worshippers at St. Mary's Cathedral during the 6 p.m. mass yesterday when news of the murders was announced from the pulpit by the parish priest, Father Elmar Mayr.

Dr. Johanna Davis, medical superintendent of St. Luke's Mission Hospital, who led the Police to the scene of the murders, and later brought Sister Ermenfried to Bulawayo by ambulance, last night recounted Sister Ermenfried's eyewitness story.

She said that the bishop's party were driving from their home mission, Regina Mundi, to St. Luke's Mission to visit a sick friend.

On the road between Gwaai siding and the main Falls road a terrorist held them up and demanded money.

According to Dr. Davis, Sister Ermenfried said: "We told him we had no money with us, that we were missionaries just out for the afternoon.

"We said, 'If you really need money, come back with us to the mission and we will help you'."

The terrorist replied that as we had no money he would have to shoot us. He began gunning us down, starting with the bishop. He riddled him with bullets. Then he mowed down the others."

Sister Ermenfried said she presumed the terrorist thought she, too, was dead. He fired at her leg which was protruding from under the car.

According to Sister Ermenfried, the terrorist was wearing a balaclava and camouflage uniform and carrying a machine-gun.

The Catholic Bishop of Bulawayo, the Rt. Rev. Henry Karlen, who succeeded Bishop Schmitt, said: "It is unbelievable."

He said he had told an African who was returning to the Geneva conference to give a message to Mr. Robert Mugabe and Mr. Joshua Nkomo.

The message was: "Tell those two gentlemen what has happened and that I said, 'This is the reward for our work for Africans for working for them all our lives'."

The murders coincided with the ill-fated Geneva conference, and a newspaper report outlines reaction:

Charges and counter-charges over the murders overshadowed the work of the settlement conference in Geneva yesterday.

Two nationalist organizations - the Patriotic Front alliance and Bishop Abel Muzorewa's ANC - blamed the Rhodesian Army's Selous Scouts for the killings, while the Government delegation said the terrorist action should be taken as a warning about the future, Iana reports.

Mr. Mark Partridge, Minister of Lands and Natural Resources, told reporters, when asked about the nationalist allegations: "If you believe that, you will believe anything."

Mr. Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union said in a statement last night that it was "preposterous for us to be accused of murdering civilians".

The incident was clearly an embarrassment to the nationalist delegation at Geneva. A reporter summed-up by writing:

Their vehement denial of terrorist involvement and the blame they have placed on Rhodesian security forces are being regarded with utter disbelief by most foreign journalists.

The only survivor of the massacre, Sister Ermenfried Knauer, said later that she would be prepared to accept the offer of a Rhodesian farmer to fly her to Geneva - where she could give evidence of the attack to any interested parties.

A Press report stated:

The wounded nun, Sister Ermenfried Knauer said she was not in a fit condition to travel at the moment. She said there was no doubt in her mind that the attack was carried out by a terrorist.

She dismissed black nationalist allegations made in Geneva that the atrocity was carried out by Rhodesian security forces.

Interviewed in hospital the sister recounted the events of the terrorist attack. She said the terrorist twice shouted out the slogan "missionaries are enemies of the people" before he gunned down the missionaries.

She said the terrorist was unable to look his victims in the eye as he was pulling the trigger and it was apparent that he had been taught anti-missionary slogans as part of his training.

On December 10, 1976, it was announced in the Press that Sister Knauer would not be permitted to visit Geneva:

Sister Ermenfriend Knauer, the nun who survived a terrorist attack in Lupane on Sunday, will not be going to Geneva after all because her Mother General will not give permission.

And last night the farmer who made the offer to pay Sister Ermenfried's fare said he was very disappointed with the Mother General's decision, and asked if there was no higher authority that could reverse her order.

"I want this nun to go to Geneva," he said, "I want her to confront the people there and tell them the truth about what happened to her."

Mother Adelberta Reinhart, the Mother General of the Missionary Sisters of the Precious Blood, said yesterday: "We are not going to enter into politics. They have more to do at Geneva now than talk to Sister Ermenfried. I would not allow her to go."

Asked why Sister Ermenfried had said in an RTV-RBC interview at Mater Dei Hospital on Wednesday that she would go to Geneva, the Mother General said: "I think she only meant she is ready to give an answer."

The farmer said: "I would like to remind the Mother General of my favourite quotation, 'All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing'."

ST. PAUL'S MASSACRE, MUSAMI
During the night of February 7, 1977, seven white Roman Catholic missionaries were murdered by terrorists. They included four nuns. A newspaper report set out the story as follows:

In what the sole survivor described as a senseless, insane and brutal act, nationalist guerrillas last night gunned down seven white Roman Catholic missionaries, including four nuns.

Father Dunstan Myerscough, who is 65, said today that he had escaped by throwing himself to the ground as the guerrillas opened fire from five yards range.

Father Myerscough said he was in no doubt that the killers were nationalist guerrillas, although they had uttered hardly a word before shooting the helpless missionaries.

The Dominican nuns who died were Sister Joseph Wilkinson (58), from Lancashire, and three West Germans - Sister Epiphany Schneider (71) and Sister Ceslaus Stiegler (59), both from Bavaria, and Sister Magdela Lewandowski (42) from Kiel.

The male Missionaries killed were Jesuits - Father Christoher Sheperd-Smith (33), a Briton born in East Africa, Father Martin Thomas (45), from London, and lay Brother John Conway (57), from Tralee, Ireland.

A Jesuit spokesman said that Brother John, who had worked for the Church in Rhodesia for 23 years, had virtually built the mission "with his bare hands".

Father Myerscough, who is British, said that when the guerrillas arrived at the mission they began rounding up the white staff. "They appeared to ignore the black staff and sisters," he said.

The group of eight was taken a short distance from the mission block, where the guernllas then argued in the vernacular as to whom would do the shooting, he said. "Finally, three of them turned on us and raised their guns. When the shooting started the others ran away."

We didn't know they were going to shoot us until the firing started. I threw myself on the ground. When the firing stopped I looked up and saw that the other seven were dead and that there was nothing I could do for them."

Rhodesian forces are hunting the guerrillas, whom the authorities say belong to Mr. Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union {ZANU). A police spokesman said the group was believed responsible for a series of incidents, including the murder of several black civilians.

Police said today they had recovered more than 100 cartridge cases fired from Russian-made rifles and a machine-gun.

FATHER DIAZ
The battered, mutilated body of Father Jose Manuel Rubio Diaz was discovered near a mission station in south-eastern Rhodesia. Father Diaz, who was 58, was born in Spain, and had worked in Rhodesia for 28 years.

ST. PAUL'S MISSION, LUPANE
Drunken terrorists were responsible for the deaths of two white women missionaries on March 10, 1977.

A summary of the murders appeared in the Guardian (London):

Two white Roman Catholic missionaries, both women, were shot dead by black nationalist guerrillas yesterday at St. Paul's mission in the Lupane district of south-western Rhodesia.

A group of eight guerrillas entered the mission, in remote bush country, yesterday afternoon, threatening the black staff and nurses and demanding money from Dr. Johanna Decker (59) and Sister Ann Ploner (53). German born Dr. Decker had been in Rhodesia for 28 years, and Sister Ploner, born in Austria, but a South African national, volunteered for missionary work in Rhodesia six months ago.

The guerrillas found Dr. Decker and Sister Ploner in the mission dispensary, and demanded money. Dr. Decker gave them the contents of the cash box but they said it was not enough. She said she had more at her house and was apparently shot down on her way to collect it. Mission staff said about R$400 (about ?400) had been stolen during the attack, in which the insurgents assaulted the black mission staff, threatened the nurses with rape, and ordered the 130 patients from their beds.

Another nun, Sister Damiane Drechsler (43) escaped death by hiding. She said she was sewing when the guerrillas arrived and she saw Dr. Decker pass her window at gunpoint. A few seconds later she heard the rattle of automatic weapons, followed soon afterwards by another burst in which Sister Ploner died, her body being riddled with eight shots.

Rhodesian forces are hunting the insurgents, who are believed to have mounted Saturday's attack against the nearby Regina Mundi mission in which an Austrian-born building contractor, Mr. Rudi Kogler, was killed after he had shot dead an insurgent leader.

According to St. Paul's mission staff, the guerrillas spent several hours at a nearby beer-hall before entering the mission, which is surrounded by a security fence.

Another report, filed by A. J. McIlroy, was published in the Daily Telegraph (London):

I drove into the bush in a five-vehicle armed convoy to see at first hand the devastation, the heartbreak and the reality of the latest atrocity, this time in an area where Mr. Nkomo's ZAPU are operating.

Mr. Nkomo, and Mr. Mugabe of ZANU, have been making terrorist attacks against civilian targets, and the latest victims yesterday were Dr. Johanna Maria Decker, 59, of Munich, killed by a single shot, in St. Paul's mission, near Lupane, on the Bulawayo-Wankie road; and Sister Ferinanda Ploner, 53, an Austrian.

Sister Ploner's body was riddled by eight shots fired in a burst by the terrorists soon after they had shot down Dr. Decker.

The two were among five whites at the mission, including the father and a monk in charge of a staff of 42 Africans looking after 130 black patients at the mission hospital.

Forty of the women patients were in the maternity wards and among those who fled included women in labour who had their babies within hours in the bush.

In a matter of 30 minutes a thriving hospital and a mission, including children nearby, was turned into a deserted compound behind the wire security fencing, leaving behind only three children, one a premature baby and the others in a ward where there had been a number of mentally retarded African children.

There was only one gun at the mission. It was used by the father to slaughter pigs and cows for food. So unprepared were they and so sure of the love and affection which the local community had shown for them, and particularly Dr. Decker, that none of the staff even knew, or could remember, where the gun was kept.

The atrocity by what were known to be a party of at least six black African terrorists bring the number of Roman Catholic missionaries killed in the last nine months to 13.

Sister Ploner was serving with the Order of the Precious Blood and last night the Order was deciding what to do about the mission; whether to try to reopen it or find some other way of helping the local community.

Clutching a key and padlock in her hand, after opening a security gate to the main building in the mission complex, Sister Damiane Drechsler, 43, from Heidelberg, who has been six years at the mission and came to Rhodesia in 1959, told visiting correspondents the sequence of events.

She said that while she had been sewing she saw two of the terrorists leading Dr. Decker at gunpoint just outside the window of her room.

Shortly afterwards she heard a "shattering" noise which she realized later was the shot which killed the doctor at a tree where she had been taken.

Shortly afterwards, a further 200 yards away, there was a burst of shooting and Sister Ploner had been murdered.

At one stage they found an African nurse who was leaving the linen closet in the main hosptal building and after saying "What are you doing here?" they pushed her on the floor and slapped her.

Asked about Dr. Decker, she said: "She was the kindest person we have ever known. She has worked all over this area and had many remote missions who will miss her. She was devoted to the cause and had never hesitated to sacrifice herself in her work for the Africans, who in turn had grown to love her.

"It was when they saw that she of all people had been shot dead by these men that they ran in panic and some didn't even stop to collect their babies."

THE REV. AND MRS. BRAND
On October, 23, 1977, the Reverend Andries Louw Brand (40) and his wife Tabina Metje Brand (41) were killed in a terrorist ambush. They were murdered while returning to their home in Que Que, after celebrating communion in the Gokwe area. Mr. Brand belonged to the clergy of the Dutch Reformed Church.

They left six children.

BROTHERS GEYERMANN AND VON ARX
The next murder of missionaries by terrorists took place on the night of June 2, 1978. Two Catholic Brothers, German-born Pieter Geyermann and Swiss-born Andrew von Arx - aged 36 and 45 respectively - were killed by gunfire at the Embakwe mission school, close to the Botswana border.

"It was definitely a terrorist attack," Father Angelmar Dylong of the mission was quoted as saying. The father was wounded in the same murderous assault.

The attack had the effect of closing the school, which had served 250 students.

SALVATION ARMY KILLINGS
Five days later, on June 7, 1978, terrorists raided the Salvation Army Usher Institute. Christopher Munnion reported for the Daily Telegraph:

Two British women mission teachers were shot dead and two other missionaries wounded in a cold-blooded raid by Rhodesian guerrillas on a Salvation Army institute near Figtree, 20 miles south-west of Bulawayo, it was disclosed yesterday.

The two women who died were Miss Charon Faith Swindells, 25, from Bangor, Co. Down, and Miss Diane Barbara Thompson, 28, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, whose parents live in Goldhawk Road, Shepherd's Bush.

They were killed instantly when a 15-strong gang of guerrillas, members of Mr. Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army opened fire indiscriminately on a group of missionares. Injured in the shooting were Miss Gunvor Berit Polsson, 37, from Malmo, Sweden, and Mr. David Cotton, 38, from Atherstone, Warwickshire, whose family lives at Hadleigh, Essex.

The guerrillas arrived at the Salvation Army's Usher Institute, a sprawling mission, on Wednesday night.

Col. Ken Ramsey of the Salvation Army said the guerrillas sought out mission staff house by house and started to march six of them towards the house of the principal, Maj. Jean Caldwell, a Londoner.

"They never got to the principal's house. The guerrillas must have been disturbed by something for they suddenly started to scatter into the bush", Col. Ramsay said.

"Before they did so, they opened fire indiscriminately and hit four of the captives."

Col. Ramsay said Mr. Cotton had been shot in the legs and Miss Polsson, the school vice-principal, was shot in the back. Their condition last night was said to be satisfactory.

The teachers' deaths brought to 20 the number of missionaries killed in Rhodesia's 5 1/2-year-old war.

The Usher Institute is close to the border with Botswana and 30 miles from the Roman Catholic Embakwe mission where two priests, one from West Germany, the other from Switzerland, were shot dead by guerrillas last Friday.

According to police, the weapons used in the latest mission killings were assault rifles of the type supplied to Mr. Nkomo's army by the Soviet Union.

MR. ARCHIE G. DUNAWAY
On June 15, at Sanyati Mission, terrorists murdered a Southern Baptist evangelist - Mr. Archie G. Dunaway (58).

Mr. Dunaway was married, with four children, and came from the United States of America.

THE ELIM MISSION MASSACRE

On the night of June 23, 1978, Elim Mission in the Rhodesian Eastern Highlands was subjected to the worst massacre of missionaries yet experienced. Terry Blocksidge reported in the Sunday Mail (Salisbury):

Eight British missionaries and four young children - including a three-week-old baby - were bayoneted to death by terrorists on Rhodesia's Eastern border on Friday night in the worst massacre of whites since the six-year-old war began.

Three of the missionaries were men and the others women.

A sixth woman was stabbed and beaten and left for dead. She staggered 300 m into the freezing Vumba bush to spend the night before being found semi-conscious by security forces yesterday. Despite intensive care in a Salisbury hospital she subsequently died.

The gruesome murders, by a group of eight to 10 terrorists, happened at Emmanuel Mission School - 15 km south-east of Umtali and 8 km from the Mozambique border - once used as the Eagle boarding school.

The dead, who belonged to the Elim Pentecostal Church, were:

* Mr. Peter McCann (30), his wife, Sandra (also 30), son Phillip (six) and daughter Joy (five).

* The Rev. Phillip Evans (29), his wife, Suzan (35), and their daughter Rebecca (four).

* Mr. Roy Lynn (37), his wife, Joyce (36), and their daughter Pamela Grace. She would have been three weeks old yesterday.

* Catherine Picken (55) and Elizabeth Wendy Hamilton- White (37).

* Miss Mary Fisher (28).

Most of the women had been sexually assaulted, and one mutilated.

The children had been dragged from their beds. Two children were in yellow pyjamas, one with a red dressing gown, and a third in a flowery nightdress.

One child had her tiny thumbs clenched

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I welcome comments from everyone on my book Choppertech.
I am interested especially on hearing from former ZANLA and ZIPRA combatants who also have thier story to tell.